Tat Tvam asi Swetketo

The verse from Chhandogya (6.8) is included in 5 Mahavakyas of Advait. Although, they have taken the interpretation of all the mahavakyas out of context; terming some of the sentences as more important than others is itself ridiculous. Vyasdeva himself compiled Vedas and as summary of them, he wrote Vedant-Sutra. If at all the so called ‘MAHA_VAKYAS’ are the essence of the Vedas, Vyas should have at least formed a Adhikaran in Brahma-sutra on Mahavakyas.

Let us look at the verse along with the whole context. The Verse comes in the ‘Sat Vidya’ portion of the Chhandogya Upanishad.

The Chandokya Upanishad Chapter 6 –

Aruna’s son is Uddalaka. Uddalaka’s son is Swethaketu. Uddalaka addressed his son
श्वेतकेतुर्हारुणेय आस तꣳ ह पितोवाच श्वेतकेतो
वस ब्रह्मचर्यं न वै सोम्यास्मत्कुलीनोऽननूच्य ब्रह्मबन्धुरिव भवतीति ॥ ६.१.१॥
“Swetaketo! Do the prescribed study of Veda under the guidance of qualified preceptor!”

स ह द्वादशवर्ष उपेत्य चतुर्विꣳशतिवर्षः
सर्वान्वेदानधीत्य महामना अनूचानमानी स्तब्ध
एयाय तꣳह पितोवाच ॥ ६.१.२॥

Swetaketu obeyed his father’s order and completed the prescribed study of Veda and returned back to his house after years. Swethaketu thought that he has mastered everything. On seeing his son, Uddalaka understood that his son is yet to know the Brahman. Uddalaka therefore wanted him to get knowledge about the Brahman.

In order to invoke his interest regarding the Brahman, Uddalaka questioned Swetaketu as follows:
स्तब्धोऽस्युत तमादेशमप्राक्ष्यः येनाश्रुतꣳ श्रुतं
भवत्यमतं मतमविज्ञातं विज्ञातमिति
॥ ६.१.३॥
“Utha tamaadesam apraakshya: yenaasrutam srutham bhavathi amatham matham avignyaatham vignyaatham” –

“O son! Do you know that “Aadesa”, by knowing which all things which were not heard becomes heard (known), all that which were not contemplated becomes contemplated and all unknown becomes known?”

Mundaka Upanishad 1.1.3

शौनको ह वै महाशालोऽङ्गिरसं विधिवदुपसन्नः पप्रच्छ। कस्मिन्नु भगवो विज्ञाते सर्वमिदं विज्ञातं भवतीति।।1.1.3।।

Meaning: Saunaka, well known as a great householder, having approached Angiras duly, asked, ‘ O adorable sir, (which is that thing) which having been known, all this becomes known? ’

Brihadaranyak Upanishad 4.5.6

आत्मनि खल्व अरे दृष्टे श्रुते मते विज्ञात इदं सर्वं विदितं भवति|

आत्मा वा अरे द्रष्टव्यः श्रोतव्यः मन्तव्यः निधिध्यासितव्यः||

Swethaketu should have got shocked on being questioned like this and doubted the question’s logic itself. By knowing water, one is not known about fire. By knowing jyotish, one is not known about Vyakaran. He did not know the answer any way. He asked his father

कथं नु भगवः स आदेशो भवतीति
//Katham Tu Bhagava: Sa: //

Meaning: How is that revered Sir?”

Uddalaka started explaining about the jagat-kaaranam Brahman. One who knows the cause, the effect too gets known to him. The one who knows the jagat-karanam Brahma, everything gets known to him; since everything emerges from that Brahman only. Brahman is both Nimitta and Upadan kaaranam of the creation. We have discussed it in details in the previous article:

Brahma Sutra 1.1.2 (Creation of Universe)

kaarya-kaaran bhaav (कार्य-कारण भाव)

His father first made it clear to his son that the question is logical and then answered it in detail. He quoted examples –

यथा सोम्यैकेन मृत्पिण्डेन सर्वं मृन्मयं विज्ञातꣳ
स्याद् ॥ ६.१.४॥
“Yatha Somya ekena mruth pindena sarvam mrunmayam vignyaatham syaath” –

Meaning: By knowing the material cause “Clay”, things (like pot which are effects) made of clay becomes to be known”.

He actually pointed out the oneness of cause (material cause – Upaadaana Kaaranam) and the effect (Kaaryam). To make him understand that Pot and Clay are same (but only different forms), he said:

वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं मृत्तिकेत्येव सत्यम्
“Vaacha-Aarambhanam Vikaaro Namadheyam mruthikethyeva satyam”.

Meaning: Though we think the pot is different from clay, it is in fact the clay itself in a changed mode, which has got a shape which is called as pot”.

Uddalaka contiues by giving more examples:

यथा सोम्यैकेन लोहमणिना सर्वं लोहमयं विज्ञातꣳ
स्याद्वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं लोहमित्येव
सत्यम् ॥ ६.१.५॥

यथा सोम्यिकेन नखनिकृन्तनेन सर्वं कार्ष्णायसं विज्ञातꣳ
स्याद्वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं कृष्णायसमित्येव
सत्यमेवꣳसोम्य स आदेशो भवतीति ॥ ६.१.६॥

Meaning: By knowing gold (cause/ कारण’), all the golden ornaments (Effect/ कार्य) becomes known. By knowing the iron, all the iron tools are known.
Swethakethu requested his father to kindly teach him that “Aadesa”, knowing which everything becomes known! “Aadesa” means Brahman who controls everything by ruling everything. It is derived in Sanskrit as “Aadichyate Anena Ithi Aadesa:”.

Brihadaranyak 3.8.6 says that by the order and fear of Narayana, Surya, chandra, Vayu etc. devatas perform their respective functions. Thus, Sriman Narayana is that ‘Adesha’.

Need to Approach Guru

Mundaka Upanishad

परीक्ष्य लोकान्कर्मचितान्ब्राह्मणो निर्वेदमायान्नास्त्यकृतः कृतेन।

तद्विज्ञानार्थं स गुरूमेवाभिगच्छेत्समित्पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्मनिष्ठम्।।1.2.12।।

Meaning: A Brahmana should resort to renunciation after examining the worlds acired through karma, with the help of this maxim: ‘ There is nothing (here) that is not the result of karma; so what is the need of (performing) karma ? ’ For knowing that Reality he should go,  only to a teacher versed in the Vedas and absorbed in Brahman.

तस्मै स विद्वानुपसन्नाय सम्यक् प्रशान्तचित्ताय शमान्विताय।

येनाक्षरं पुरूषं वेद सत्यं प्रोवाच तां तत्त्वतो ब्रह्मविद्याम्।।1.2.13।।

Meaning: To that pupil who has approached him respectfully, whose mind is altogether calm, the wise teacher truly told that knowledge of Brahman through which he knows the imperishable true Person’

ब्रह्मा देवानां प्रथमः संबभूव विश्वस्य कर्ता भुवनस्य गोप्ता।

स ब्रह्मविद्यां सर्वविद्याप्रतिष्ठामथर्वाय ज्येष्ठपुत्राय प्राह।।1.1.1।।

Brahma, the creator of the Universe and the protector of the world, was the first among the gods to be manifested. To His eldest son Atharva He imparted that knowledge of Brahman that is the basis of all knowledge.

Shwetaswar 6.23

यथा देवे तथा गुरु

Gita 4.34

तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया।  उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः।।4.34।।

Guru.JPG

Uddalaka Started his teachings:

{English translation  by. Swami Nikhilananda.}

सदेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् ।
तद्धैक आहुरसदेवेदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयं
तस्मादसतः सज्जायत ॥ ६.२.१॥
“Sat Eva Somya edmagre aaseeth ekameya adveteeyam”.

Meaning: “In the beginning, O Somya (who is fit to drink the Soma juice (prepared in Soma yagnya), this universe was Being (Sat) alone, one only without a second. Some say that in the beginning this was non−being (asat) alone, one only without a second; and from that non−being, being was born.”

Here, Brahman Sriman Narayan is said to be both nimitta and Upadaan kaaran i.e. both effective and material cause i.e. both potter and mud.

‘Sat’ here means ‘Narayana’ and ‘Asat ‘means the subtle/ sukshma form of universe before creation. (एकमेवाद्वितीयं तस्मात् असतः सत जायत). From ‘asat’ was born ‘sat’ means the universe in unmanifested/ subtle form became manifested in gross form.  Thus, ‘Vishist-Brahman’ is both Nimitta and Upadana kaaran. Intially the verse says that there was ‘sat’ alone; having none second to him. The verse later says that only ‘asat’ was present in the beginning, having none second to it. Thus, The Sruti mentions very clearly that both Narayana and Universe were present in the beginning with universe being the body of the Brahman. There is none second to that ‘Vishist-Brahman’ (ekmeva adwitiyam). It has been described in details in the previous article:

Brahma Sutra 1.1.2 (Creation of Universe)

The universe which you see now with manifold forms and names was not like this before its creation but was present subtle (difficult to distinguish) form of “Sat”. Nothing is its support other than Sat.

‘Sat’ here means lakshmipati Narayana only by ‘caag pashu nyaay’.

  1. आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीत्। नान्यत् किंचन मिषत्। स ईक्षत लोकान्नु सृजा इति।। Aitereya 1.1.1।
  2. brahma va idam agra asit (BRIHADARANYAK 1.4.10; MAITRI UPANISHAD 6.17)
  3. naiveha kinchana agra aasit, divya deva eko Narayana (Subalopanishad)
  4. eko ha vai narayano aasit (mahopanishad)
  5. eko ha vai nArAyaNa AsIt| na brhamA na ISAnah na Apah naagnishomi yau na eme dyAvA pRthvI na nakshatrANina sUryah na candramAh| (narayana Upanishad)
  6. Thus, aatma, Brahma, sat refers to Narayana only.

 

Taittiriya Upanishad 2.7.1

असद्वा इदमग्र आसीत्। ततो वै सदजायत।

Meaning: In the beginning there was only ‘asat‘. From that ‘sat‘ manifested.

 

Swetketo had doubt

कुतस्तु खलु सोम्यैवँ् स्यादिति होवाच कथमसतः सज्जायेतेति ।

Meaning: How can ‘sat’ be evolved from ‘Asat’?

Uddalaka clarifies:

सत्त्वेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् ।। 6.2.2 ।।

तदैक्षत बहु स्यां प्रजायेयेति तत्तेजोऽसृजत तत्तेज ऐक्षत बहु स्यां प्रजायेयेति तदपोऽसृजत तस्माद्यत्र क्कच शोचति स्वेदते वा पुरुषस्तेजस एव तदध्यापो जायन्ते ।। 6.2.3 ।।

Meaning: Only ‘sat’ was in the beginning. The “Sat” wished that “I become the multitudinous (expanded-SthUla) chit and achit tatvas ie., the universe”. The “Sat” became many, as it wished. This is “Sat’s” first Sankalpam (Wish).

He created ‘teja’. ‘teja’ desired may I become many, it created water. ( Non-sentient ‘teja’ can’t desire. What sruti means that the antaryaami of ‘teja’ i.e. Narayana, having teja as its body; desired and created water). Thus, Narayana created teja, water, earth etc.

Sruti too mentions in Brihadaranyak: yasya aapah shatiram, yasya prithvi shariram etc.

Here, the sruti refutes the claims of ‘asat-kaarya-vaad’ that sat evolved from asat i.e. atoms and molecules itself combined to form the universe without any ‘nimitta kaaran’. Atoms are non-sentient and have no knowledge. The world is not formed as a random accident but this beautiful, well-planned universe is created by will/sankalp of god, the nimitta kaaran. Can the mud (upaadaan kaaran) itself get converted to pot (effect)? It needs a potter i.e. nimitta kaaran who possess knowledge, power and intelligence.

Also, the Sruti clarifies the difference between nimitta and upaadaana kaaran. Upaadan kaaran converts itself into the effect but nimitta kaaran remains unchanged. Similarly, Brahman which is ‘nirvikaar’ remains unchanged and it’s body undergoes change from subtle to gross during creation and gross to subtle during deluge. That ‘Vishisht-Brahmna’ is the ‘abhinna-nimitta-upaadaan-kaaran’.

Next shlokas gives details of creation but without dwelling into that, let’s stick to the topic. Narayana created three types of creatures:

  1. Aandajam: creatures born from egg.
  2. Jeevajam: Creatures born from ‘garbha’
  3. Udbhijam: Creatures born from erupting out of soil e.g. trees.

 

Next shloks:

सेयं देवतैक्षत हन्ताहमिमास्तिस्रो देवता अनेन
जीवेनात्मनानुप्रविश्य नामरूपे व्याकरवाणीति ॥

तासां त्रिवृतं त्रिवृतमेकैकां करवाणीति सेयं देवतेमास्तिस्रो देवता

अनेनैव जीवेनात्मनानुप्रविश्य नामरूपे व्याकरोत् ।। 6.3.3 ।।

“SOyam Devataykshatha Hanthaaham Imaa: Tisra: Devataa:

Anena JevEna Aatmanaa Anupravisya Nama Roope iVyaakaravaaNi”
Meaning: The “Sat” wished again –  “by having the representative divinities (abhimaani devata) of Tejas (fire/light), Aap (Water) and Annam (Prutvi-matter) as Sareeram (body/mode), I enter into them as aatma and give manifold names and forms to them”. It became as it wished.

Parmatma is having for his body all the aatmans:

yasya vigyaanam shariram (Br Up 3.7)

yasya aksharam shareeram (Subalopanishad. 7)

jagat sarvam sariram te (Ramayan, Yuddhakand)

 

Taittiriya Upanishad 2.6.1

सोऽकामयत। बहु स्यां प्रजायेयेति। स तपोऽतप्यत। स तपस्तप्तवा। इद्ँ सर्वमसृजत। यदिदं किं च। तत्सृष्ट्रा। तदेवानुप्राविशत्। तदनुप्रविश्य। सच्च त्यच्चाभवत्। निरुक्तं चानिरुक्तं च। निलयनं चानिलयनं च। विज्ञानं चाविज्ञानं च। सत्यं चानृतं च सत्यमभवत्। यदिदं किंच। यदिदं किंच। तत्सत्यमित्याचक्षते। तदप्येष श्लोको भवति।।2.6.1।।

He (the Self) wished, ‘ Let me be many, let me be born.’ He undertook a deliberation. Having deliberated, he created all this that exists. That (Brahman), having created (that), entered into that very thing. And having entered there, It became the formed and the formless, the defined and the undefined, the sustaining and the non-sustaining, the sentient and the insentient, the true and the untrue. Truth became all this that there is. They call that (Brahman) Truth. Pertaining to this, here is a verse:

The Brahman (Sat) is therefore declared as the “Cause” (Kaaranam) of the universe. By the first sankalpam, the Brahman did the “Samashti Srushti” and by the second sankalpam he did the “Vyashti Srushti”.

Samasti srishti: creating the universe in its amass form .

Vyasti Srishti: creating the universe in its clearly diversified form by being antaryaami of Brahma and abhimaani devatas of tejas, aapah and prithvi.

Panchikaranam:

Bhagwaan mixes the panchatattva in various proportions to evolve the world. He first divides tejas, water and earth into two parts. Then again makes 3 part of each part. Then he starts mixing them. This is called panchikaranam.

Whatever redness we see in any element is due to undivided tejas.

Whatever whiteness we see in any element is due to undivided aapah.

Whatever blackness we see in any element is due to undivided prithvi.

 

Need for sattvik aahar is stressed in further passages:

अन्नमयँ् हि सोम्य मन आपोमयः प्राणस्तेजोमयी वागिति भूय एव मा भगवान्विज्ञापयत्विति तथा सोम्येति होवाच ।। 6.5.4 ।।

Meaning: “The mind, my dear, consists of food, the prana of water and speech of tejas.”

अन्नमयँ् हि सोम्य मन आपोमयः प्राणस्तेजोमया वागिति भूय एव मा भगवान्विज्ञापयत्विति तथा सोम्येति होवाच ।। 6.6.5 ।। 

Meaning: “Thus, my dear, the mind consists of food, the prana consists of water and speech consists of fire.”

षोडशकलः सोम्य पुरुषः ||6.7.1||

“A person, my dear, consists of sixteen parts”.

What are those 16 parts? It’s detailed in Prashnopanishad 6.4

स प्राणमसृजत प्राणाच्छ्रद्धां स्वं वायुर्जोतिरापः पृथिवीन्द्रियं मनः अन्नम्न्नाद्वीर्यं तपो मन्त्राः कर्म लोका लाकेषु च नाम च।।6.1.4।।

.He created Prana; from Prana faith, Akasa, air, fire, water, earth, senses, mind and food; and from food, strength, penance, Mantras, Karma and worlds and in the worlds name also.

Having Described earlier the creation of Achit, Uddalaka now describe the creation of chit (aatmans)

 

उद्दालको हारुणिः श्वेतकेतुं पुत्रमुवाच स्वप्नान्तं मे सोम्य विजानीहीति यत्रैतत्पुरुषः स्वपिति नाम सता सोम्य तदा सम्पन्नो भवति स्वमपीतो भवति तस्मादेनँ् स्वपितीत्याचक्षते स्वँ् ह्यपीतो भवति ।। 6.8.1 ।।

Meaning: Uddalaka the son of Aruna said to his son Svetaketu: “Learn from me, my dear, the true nature of sleep. When a person has entered into deep sleep, as it is called, then, my dear, he becomes united with  Sat. That is why they say he is in deep sleep (svapiti); it is because he has gone (apita) to his own (svam).

In state of Susupti or deep sleep, person is devoid of his naam and rupa (name and form) and is united with ‘Sat’.

{The 4 stages of existence are: Jaagrat (waked up), Swapna (Dreamy), Susupti (Deep sleep) and Turiya}

‘Sat’ (सत) means Parabrahma Narayana only:

 

  1. सदेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् । (Chhandogya 6.2.1) {In the beginning, there was only Sat.
  2. सत असत क्षरम अक्षरम (Vishnu Sahastranaam, Mahabharat)
  3. इन्द्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहुरथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान् ।एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्त्यग्निं यमं मातरिश्वानमाहुः ॥ ऋ.वे. १.१६४.४६ ॥

    Meaning:- “They have styled him, Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is the celestial, well-winged Garutmat, for learned priests call ‘Sat‘ by many name as they speak of Agni, Yama, Mataṛṣvan.”

  4. तत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः। (Gita 17.23)

Om, Tat, Sat – thus Brahman is denoted by this threefold expression.

 

Susupti avastha is well described in Brihadaranyak Upanishad:

तद्यथा प्रियया स्त्रिया सम्परिष्वक्तो न बाह्यं किं चन वेद
नाऽऽन्तरमेवमेवायं पुरुषः प्राज्ञेनाऽऽत्मना
सम्परिष्वक्तो न बाह्यं किं चन वेद नाऽऽन्तरम् ।

Meaning: Just like a person embracing his loving wife is not aware of anything inside or Outside, similary after embracing antaryaami aatma (Narayana) during Susupti; the person is neither aware of anything outside, nor inside.

Swapiti (स्वपिति) = स्व+ अपिति = स्व यानी जीव शारीरक परब्रह्म में प्रलीन (अपिति) हो जाना के कारण आत्मा को स्वपिति कहा गया है|

स यथा शकुनिः सूत्रेण प्रबद्धो दिशं दिशं पतित्वान्यत्रायतनमलब्ध्वा बन्धनमेवोपश्रयत एवमेव खलु सोम्य तन्मनो दिशं दिशं पतित्वान्यत्रायतनमलब्ध्वा प्राणमेवोपश्रयते प्राणबन्धनँ् हि सोम्य मन इति ।। 6.8.2 ।।

Meaning: Just as a bird tied by a string to the hand of the bird−catcher first flies in every direction and then finding no rest anywhere, settles down at the place where it is bound i.e. hand of the bird catcher, so also the mind. Having been terrorized by the  Samsaram in ‘Jagrat’ and ‘Swapna’ avastha; aatman seeks refuge of Narayana in deep sleep.

 

सोम्येमाः सर्वाः प्रजाः सदायतनाः सत्प्रतिष्ठा यथा नु खलु सोम्येमास्तिस्रो देवताः पुरुषं प्राप्य त्रिवृत्ित्रवृदेकैका भवति तदुक्तं पुरस्तादेव भवत्यस्य सोम्य पुरुषस्य प्रयतो वाङ्मनसि सम्पद्यते मनः प्राणे प्राणस्तेजसि तेजः परस्यां देवतायाम् ।। स य एषोऽणिमा|| 6.8.6 ।।

Meaning: Yes, my Somya, all these creatures have their root in Sat (Narayana), they dwell in Sat (Narayana), they finally rest in Sat (narayana).

When a person departs hence, his speech merges in his mind, his mind in his prana, his prana in tejah and the tejah in the Highest  devata (तेजः परस्यां देवतायाम् ) ((Narayana).

स य एषोऽणिमा :- (Eshah) That sat is anu and not comprehendable by these senses.

सदायतनाः :- The creatures are always ruled by ‘sat’ (Narayana).

 

सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत । (Chhandogya 3. 14.1)

Meaning: Everything emanates from that Brahman, sustains in brahman and dissolves into Brahman.

 

एतदात्म्यमिदꣳ सर्वं तत्सत्यꣳ स आत्मा तत्त्वमसि श्वेतकेतो (6.8.7)

अन्वय: इदं सर्वं एतदात्म्यम तत सत्यम सः आत्मा श्वेतकेतो तत त्वं असि|

Meaning: All this universe is (एतदात्म्यम) pervaded by jagat-kaaranam Narayana as their antaryaami aatma. (तत) That Brahman Narayana is ( त्वं) you i.e. antaryaami of all the aatmas and having all the aatmas as its body, Sriman Narayana.

एतदात्म्यम :- एष आत्मा यस्य तत

tat :- The Brahman Narayana associated with all the divine kalyaan gunas and devoid of all the imperfections.

tvam :- The Brahman Narayana, antaryaami of all the aatmas, having all aatmas as his body.

asi :– There is no difference in both the forms of God Narayana.

‘tat’ represents Narayana:

  1. तत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः। (Gita 17.23) {Om, Tat, Sat – thus Brahman is denoted by this threefold expression.}
  2. kim yat tat padam anuttamam (Vishnu sahastranaam.61)

 

अन्वय 2 :-सः आत्मा श्वेतकेतो, तत्त्वम असि

Meaning: That is aatma Swetketo, He is ‘tattvam’ of creation.

Q: Why is ‘asi’ used here instead of ‘asti’?

Ans: As per panini Sutra 1.1.1 and 3.1.5 (व्यत्वयो वहुलम).

 

अन्वय 3 :- सः आत्मा श्वेतकेतो, तत तु अम असि (इकोयणचि, Panini 6.1.77)

Meaning: Narayana (tat tu) is (asi) this (am) Swetketo.

As per panini 6.1.101 (अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः)

अन्वय 4 :- सः आत्मा अतत त्वं असि श्वेतकेतो

Meaning: That is aatma (Narayana) Swetketo, You are not that (atat)

atat:  not that

tvam asi: You are

As per Padma Puran Uttar khand 6.236.7

Adi Shankar, incarnation of shankar, came to preach Mayavada and preached wrong meaning of the vedas. Preached people to go away from karma, so that they get fallen.

 

Swetketo was unable to understand and requested his father to explain further,

मा भगवान्विज्ञापयत्विति तथा सोम्येति होवाच ।। 6.8.7 ।।

Meaning: I am unable to understand. Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction.

“So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

Uddalaka explains through various examples.

Example 1:

यथा सोम्य मधु मधुकृतो निस्तिष्ठन्ति नानात्ययानां वृक्षाणाँ् रसान्समवहारमेकताँ्रसं गमयन्ति ।। 6.9.1 ।।

ते यथा तत्र न विवेकं लभन्तेऽमुष्याहं वृक्षस्य रसोऽस्म्यमुष्याहं वृक्षस्य रसोऽस्मीत्येवमेव खलु सोम्येमः सर्वाः प्रजाः सति सम्पद्य न विदुः सति सम्पद्यामह इति ।। 6.9.2 ।।

Meaning: “As bees, my dear, make honey by collecting the juices of trees located at different places and reduce them to one form, “And as these juices have no discrimination so as to be able to say: ‘I am the juice of this tree,’ or ‘I am the juice of that tree’−even so, indeed, my dear, all these creatures, though they reach Sat, do not know that they have reached Pure Being.

Explaination:

In the state of susupti or deep sleep or at the time of deluge, aatman is devoid of name and form. It is not aware of it’s association with Narayana. During deep sleep, we are not aware that we are someone’s father or some object’s possessor. Only Dhaarmi gyaan exists at the time of deep sleep and dharm-bhoot gyaanam is absent.

त इह व्याघ्रों वा सि ँ् हो वा वृको वा वराहो वा कीटो वा पतङ्गो वा द ँ् शो वा मशको वा यद्यद्भवन्ति तदाभवन्ति ।। 6.9.3 ।।

Meaning: “Whatever these creatures are, here in this world−a tiger, a lion, a wolf, a boar, a worm, a fly, a gnat, or a mosquito−that they become again. 

Explaination:

As they come out of deep sleep, they redevelop their dharm-bhoot gyaanam. Again they become relative of someone  and possessor of something.

After creation, the aatmans who were devoid of name and form, gets name and form as per their previous karma.

 

Example 2.

इमाः सोम्य नद्यः पुरस्तात्प्राच्यः स्यन्दन्ते पश्चात्प्रतीच्यस्ताः समुद्रात्समुद्रमेवापियन्ति स समुद्र एव भवति ता यथा तत्र न विदुरियमहमस्मीयमहमस्मीति ।। 6.10.1 ।।

“These rivers, my dear, flow−the eastern toward the east and the western toward the west. They arise from the sea and flow into the sea. Just as these rivers, while they are in the sea, do not know: ‘I am this river’ or ‘I am that river’.

एवमेव खलु सोम्येमाः सर्वाः प्रजाः सत आगम्य न विदुः सत आगच्छामह इति त इह व्याघ्रो वा सि ँ् हो वा वृको वा वराहो वा कीटो वा पतङ्गो वा   द ँ् शो वा मशतो वा यद्यद्भवन्ति तदाभवन्ति ।। 6.10.2 ।।

“Even so, my dear, all these creatures, even though they have come from Sat, do
not know that they have come from sat. Whatever these creatures are, here in this world−a tiger, a lion, a wolf, a boar, a worm, a fly, a gnat, or a mosquito, that they become again”.

Explanation: 

At the time of deep sleep and deluge, aatman is not aware that they have come from Narayana; although they are with Narayana. After coming out of deep sleep, they regain their dharma-bhoot gyaanam.

Example 3.

अस्य सोम्य महतो वृक्षस्य यो मूलेऽभ्याहन्याज्जीवन्स्रवेद्यो मध्येऽभ्याहन्याज्जीवन्स्रवेद्योऽग्रेऽभ्याहन्याज्जीवनस्रवेत्स एष जीवेनात्मानानुप्रभूतः पेपीयमानो मोदमानस्तिष्ठति ।। 6.11.1 ।।

अस्य यदेकाँ् शाखां जीवो जहात्यथ सा शुष्यति द्वितीयां जहात्यथ सा शुष्यति तृतीयां जहात्यथ सा शुष्यति सर्वं जहाति सर्वः शुष्यति ।। 6.11.2 ।।

“If, my dear, someone were to strike at the root of this large tree here, it would bleed but
live. If he were to strike at the middle, it would bleed but live. If he were to strike at the top, it would bleed but live. Pervaded by the living self, that tree stands firm, drinking in again and again its nourishment and rejoicing.

But if the life (i.e. living self) leaves one of its branches, that branch withers; if it leaves a second, that branch withers; if it leaves a third, that branch withers. If it leaves the whole tree, the whole three withers. ”

एवमेव खलु सोम्य विद्धीति होवाच जीवापेतं वाव किलेदं म्रियते न जीवो म्रियत इति |

Take the tree to be body. “In exactly the same manner, my dear,” said he, “know this: This body dies, bereft of the living self; but the living self dies not”.

 

Example 4.

न्यग्रोधफलमत आहरेतीदं भगव इति भिन्द्धीति भिन्नं भगव इति किमत्र पश्यसीत्यण्व्य इवेमा धाना भगव इत्यासामङ्गेकां भिन्द्धीति भिन्ना भगव इति किमत्र पश्यसीति न किञ्चन भगव इति ।। 6.12.1 ।।

“Bring me a fruit of that nyagrodha (banyan) tree.”
“Here it is’ venerable Sir.” “Break it.”
“It is broken, venerable Sir.”
“What do you see there?”
“These seeds, exceedingly small,
“Break one of these, my son.”
“It is broken, venerable Sir.”
“What do you see there?”
“Nothing at all, venerable Sir.”

तँ् होवाच यं वै सोम्यैतमणिमानं न निभालयस एतस्य वै सोस्यैषोऽणिम्न एवं महान्यग्रोधस्तिष्ठति श्रद्धत्स्व सोम्येति ।। 6.12.2 ।।

The father said: “That subtle essence, my dear, which you do not perceive there−from that very essence this great nyagrodha arises.
Believe me, my dear.

Explaination:

Before creation, the universe was subtle, without name and form. From that the world takes gross form.

The aatman and parmatman is anu  and can’t be comprehended by senses. Only through the eyes of shastras, we can perceive chit-achit-Vishisht-Narayana.

 

Example 5.

लवणमेतदुदकेऽवधायाथ मा प्रातरुपसीदथा इति स ह तथा चकार तँ् होवाच यद्दोषा लवणमुदकेऽवाधा अङ्ग तदाहरेति तद्धावमृश्य न विवेद ।। 6.13.1 ।।

“Place this salt in water and then come to me in the morning.”
The son did as he was told.
The father said to him: “My son, bring me the salt which you placed in the water last night.”
Looking for it, the son did not find it, for it was completely dissolved.

यथा विलीनमेवाङ्गास्यान्तादाचामेति कथमिति लवणमिति मध्यादाचामेति कथमिति लवणमित्यन्तादाचामेति कथमिति लवणमित्यभिप्रास्यैतदथ मोपसीदथा इति तद्ध तथा चकार तच्छश्वत्संवर्तते तँ् होवाचात्र वाव किल सत्सोम्य न निभालयसेऽन्नैव किलेति ।। 6.13.2 ।।

The father said: “My son, take a sip of water from the surface. How is it?”
“It is salt.”
“Take a sip from the middle. How is it?”
“It is salt.”
“Take a sip from the bottom. How is it?”
“It is salt.”
“Throw it away and come to me.”
The son did as he was told, saying: “The salt was there all the time.”
Then the father said: “Here also, my dear, in this body you do not perceive Sat (Being); but
It is indeed there.”

Explanation:

Although Brahman resides inside aatman, is forever present with the aatman; it’s presence can’t be comprehended by senses. It’s presence can be only be experienced in direction of Guru/Acharya.

Although Brahman resides inside the aatman; the indivisuality of both remains. Had both aatman and parmatman been same and not different; both would have become one. To Mayavadis, it seems as non-difference but when examined through eyes of shastras, we can perceive difference between aatman and Brahman.

Example 5.

यथा सोम्य पुरुषं गन्धारेभ्योऽभिनद्धाक्षमानाय तं ततोऽतिजने विसृजेत्स यथा तत्र प्राङ्वोदङ्वाधराङ्वा प्रत्यङ्वा प्रध्यमायीताभिनद्धाक्ष आनीतोऽभिनद्धाक्षो विसृष्टः ।। 6.14.1 ।।

“Just as someone, my dear, might lead a person, with his eyes covered, away from the
country of the Gandharas and leave him in a place where there were no human beings; and just as that person would turn toward the east, or the north, or the south, or the west, shouting: ‘I have been brought here with my eyes covered, I have been left here with my eyes covered!’

तस्य यथाभिनहनं प्रमुच्य प्रब्रूयोदेतां दिशं गन्धारा एतां दिशं व्रजेति स ग्रामाद्ग्रामं पृच्छन्पण्डितो मेधावी गन्धारानेवोपसम्पद्येतैवमेवेहाचार्यवान्पुरुषो वेद तस्य तावदेव चिरं यावन्न विमोक्ष्येऽथ सम्पत्स्य इति ।। 6.14.2 ।।

“And as thereupon someone might loosen the covering and say to him: ‘Gandhara is in that direction; go that way’; and as thereupon, having been informed and being capable of judgement, he would, by asking his way from one village to another, arrive at last at
Gandhara−in exactly the same manner does a man who has found a teacher to instruct him obtain the true knowledge. For him there is delay only so long as he is not liberated from the body; then he reaches perfection.

Explaination:

We have been wandering in sansaar saagar from time immemorial and experiencing pains and pleasures.  Acharya opens out eyes of ignorance by giving gyaanam and we reach the abode Brahman travelling through Archiraadi maarg.

 

Example 6.

पुरुषँ् सोम्योतोपतापिनं ज्ञातयः पर्युपासते जानासि मां जानासि मामिति तस्य यावन्न वाङ् मनसि सम्पद्यते मनः प्राणे प्राणस्तेजसि तेजः परस्यां देवतायां तावज्जानाति ।। 6.15.1 ।।

अथ यदास्य वाङ् मनसि सम्पद्यते मनः प्राणे प्राणस्तेजसि तेजः परस्यां देवतायामथ न जानाति ।। 6.15.2 ।।

“Around a dying person afflicted with illness, my dear, his relatives gather and ask: ‘Do you know me? Do you know me?’ He knows them as long as his speech is not merged in his mind, his mind in his prana (breath), his prana in heat (fire) and the heat in the Highest devata (Brahman).

“But when his speech is merged in his mind, his mind in his prana, his prana in heat and
the heat in the Brahman, then he does not know them”.

 

Example 7.

पुरुषँ् सोम्योत हस्तगृहीतमानयन्त्यपहार्षीत्स्तेयमकार्षीत्परशुमस्मै तपतेति स यदि तस्य कर्ता भवति तत एवानृतमात्मानं कुरुते सोऽनृताभिसन्धोऽनृतेनात्मानमन्तर्धाय परशुं तप्तं प्रतिगृह्णाति स दह्यतेऽथ हन्यते ।। 6.16.1 ।।

अथ यदि तस्याकर्ता भवति तत एव सत्यमात्मानं कुरुते स सत्याभिसन्धः सत्येनात्मानमन्तर्धाय परशुं तप्तं प्रतिगृह्णाति स न दह्यतेऽथ मुच्यते ।। 6.16.2 ।।

“My dear, they (i.e. the police) bring a man whom they have seized by the hand and say:
‘He has taken something, he has committed a theft.’ When he denies it, they say: ‘Heat the axe for him.’ If he has committed the theft but denies it, then he makes himself a liar. Being false−minded, he covers himself with falsehood, grasps the heated axe and is burnt. Then he is killed.

“But if he did not commit the theft, then he makes himself what he really is. Being
true−minded, he covers himself with truth, grasps the heated axe and is not burnt. He is
released.

Explanation:

Aatman is not the karta by influenced by 3 gunas of prakriti, it does paapam and punyam. Once it realize Narayana as ‘karta’ and aatman as ‘akarta’; it get’s released of bondage of birth and death.

 

Conclusion:

Looking at the whole discussion, Brahman has been described as jagat-kaaranam i.e. creator of the universe just by his will or sankalpam. There is nothing in the context to ascribe to jeevatma-Brahma aikyam. We can call the Golden chain as Gold. This is called ‘kaarya-kaaran bhaava’.

Again, Brahman has for its body all chit and achit. In common practice we call or address aatman by the name of Body. e.g. We call someone ‘dandi-purush’; ‘golden girl’; ‘man with long hairs’ etc. The name belongs to the body but body can’t respond, it being non-sentient. Atually, we are calling aatman by the name of Body. Similarly, when we say ‘you are Brahman’; ‘I am Brahman’; “aatma is Brahma”; it naturally refers that ‘Narayana is Brahman’; since every aatman is his body and he is the antaryaami aatma of every aatmans. This is called ‘sharir-aatma bhaava

Like we call, “O Auto! come here”. Actually we are calling one who possess the auto. also, when an army wins, We say, “India won’ since the army is possessed by India. Similary, the aatman is possessed by Brahman. What we refer to aatman is actually referred to it’s master, Sriman Narayana. This is called ‘Prrakaar-Prakaari-bhaava’

 

 

Taittiriya Upanishad 2.7.1

रसो वै सः। रस्ँह्येवायं लब्ध्वानन्दी भवती। को ह्येवान्यात्कः प्राण्यात्। तदेष आकाश आनन्दो न स्यात्। एष ह्येवानन्दयाति। यदा ह्येवैष एतस्मिन्नदृश्येऽनात्म्येऽनिरुक्तेऽनिलयनेऽभयं प्रतिष्ठां विन्दते। अथ सोऽभयं गतो भवति। यदा ह्येवैष एतस्मिन्नुदरमन्तरं कुरुते। अथ तस्य भयं भवति। तत्त्वेव भयं विदुषोऽमन्वानस्य। तदप्येष श्लोको भवति।।2.7.1।।

Brahman is verily the source of joy; for one becomes happy by coming in contact with that source of joy. Who, indeed, will inhale, and who will exhale, if this Bliss be not there in the supreme space (within the heart). This one, indeed, enlivens (people). For whenever an aspirant gets fearlessly established in this unperceivable, bodiless, inexpressible and unsupporting Brahman, he reaches the state of fearlessness. For, whenever the aspirant creates the slightest difference in It, he is smitten with fear. Nevertheless, that very Brahman is a terror to the (so called) learned man who lacks the unitive outlook. Illustrative of this here is a verse:

 

42058296_1956504224431600_4559052396805750784_nBGKrishnaArjunanara-narayanan

 

Credits:

  1. Gudhaarth deepika on Chhandogya Upanishad by HH Tridandi Viswasenacharya swamijee maharaj
  2. English translation of chhandogya Upanishad by Swami Nikhilanand.
  3. https://www.upanishads.iitk.ac.in/
  4. http://sriramanujar.tripod.com/tutorial/6.html#

Athato Brahm Jigyasa

1.1.1Then, Therefore, inquire into Brahman.

Brahman is derived from the root word- “Brih” which means “great or massive”. (brihattva, from the root ‘brih’).

Bruhyati Brahmyati iti brahma: One who is giant/ great and makes everyone approaching him equally massive/ great is Brahman.

The word ‘then’ denotes immediate sequence.
therefore’denotes antecedent fact i.e. prior activities that leads to enquiry into Brahman.

Enquiry into work must first be taken up. Then the person learns that
1) the results of work are temporary and limited.
2) the knowledge of Brahman leads to eternal and unlimited result i.e. moksham.
After realizing this, desire to know Brahman arises in him.

It is the knowledge of empheral nature of the work that necessiates enquiry into Brahman.

Mundak Upanishad(1.2.12):
परीक्ष्य लोकान्कर्मचितान्ब्राह्मणो निर्वेदमायान्नास्त्यकृतः कृतेन।
तद्विज्ञानार्थं स गुरूमेवाभिगच्छेत्समित्पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्मनिष्ठम्।।1.2.12।।
Meaning: After having examined the worlds attained through work, a brahmana should get dis-passionate toward them. The uncaused can’t be attained by the caused. .. … To know that, he must approach a guru, who is learned and dwells entirely in Brahman. To that pupil who has approached him respectfully, whose mind is altogether calm, the wise teacher truly told that knowledge of Brahman through which he knows the imperishable true Person’

तस्मै स विद्वानुपसन्नाय सम्यक् प्रशान्तचित्ताय शमान्विताय। येनाक्षरं पुरूषं वेद सत्यं प्रोवाच तां तत्त्वतो ब्रह्मविद्याम्।।1.2.13।।

Meaning: To that pupil who has approached him respectfully, whose mind is altogether calm, the wise teacher truly told that knowledge of Brahman through which he knows the imperishable true Person’

That the fruit of mere works is transitory, while the result of the knowledge of Brahman is something permanent, the Vedanta-texts declare in many places–

  • ‘And as here the world acquired by work perishes, so there the world acquired by merit perishes’ (Kath. Up. VIII, 1,6);
  • ‘That work of his has an end’ (Bri. Up. III, 8, 10);
  • ‘By non-permanent works the Permanent is not obtained’ (Ka. Up. I, 2, 10);
  • प्लवा ह्येते अदृढा यज्ञरूपा अष्टादशोक्तमवरं येषु कर्म। एतच्छ्रेयो येऽभिनन्दन्ति मूढा जरामृत्युं ते पुनरेवापियन्ति।। (Mu. Up. I, 2, 7);

Meaning: (Since these eighteen constituents of a sacrifice, on whom the inferior karma has been said to rest, are perishable because of their fragility, therefore those ignorant people who get elated with the idea ‘ This is (the cause of) bliss ’, undergo old age and death over again.)

  • ‘Told’ here means ‘he is to tell.’–On the other hand, ‘He who knows Brahman attains the Highest’ (Taitt. Up. II, 1, 1);
  • ‘He who sees this does not see death’ (Kath. Up. VII, 26, 2);
  • ‘He becomes a self-ruler’ (Kath. Up. VII, 25, 2);
  • ‘Knowing him he becomes immortal here’ (Taitt. Âr. III, 12, 7);
  • ‘Having known him he passes over death; there is no other path to go’ (Svet. Up. VI, 15);
  • ‘Having known as separate his Self and the Mover, pleased thereby he goes to immortality’ (Svet. Up. I, 6).

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Purvpaksha (Objection)

The mere learning of the Veda with its auxiliary disciplines gives rise to the knowledge that results of karma-kaand is transitory and limited, they why does one need to follow karm-kand? One can directly jump to Uttar-meemasha (Gyaan-kaand).

Siddhant (Reply)

It is not possible. Even as the study of Purva-meemasha doesn’t help one desirous for liberation but it necessiates on his part inquiry into Brahman. Study of Purv-meemasha is necessariy to realize definitly and beyond doubt that knowledge obtained from the work is temporary and limited. Only after such a realization, immediate sequence is inquiry into Brahman. (brahm-jigyaasa).

If one is desirous to skip step 2 and 3 and wanto jump to step 4 directly after step 1; he can be questioned in similar manner. Leave even step 4 i.e. study of vedant and jump to Brahm-upasana.

In case you insist that Step 4 is mandatorily needed, then it may as well be accepted that
Step 2 & 3 are also required.

Purvpaksha (Objection)

There is no need to know brahman. Immortality can be achieved by rituals as declared by texts like, “drinking soma, we have become eternal”.

Siddhant (Reply)

The scriptures declare that “Knowing him alone one transcends death”. (Svetaswar 3.8). “After having examined the worlds attained through work, a brahmana should get dis-passionate toward them. The uncaused can’t be attained by the caused”. (Mundak 1.2.12).

Thus, immortability can only be achieved through knowledge. What is stated by  texts like, “drinking soma, we have become eternal”; should be taken literally, but in a relative sense only. So, brahman should be known.

Purvpaksha (Objection)

The power of words is to signify an action only. Therefore, import of vedas is only Action. Hence, vedant-texts are of no use.

Siddhant (Reply)

There is universally known method of establishing the relation between words and things signified by them. The ruke that words signify only action is not binding. It is possible for words to convey knowledge of self-established existing thing.

ex- Parents points out towards some objects which signify that word but slowly the child is able to find that the word themselves give rise to certain ideas in the mind. Thus, the words are used as denotative power.

For the sake of comprehension and interpretation, Vedas have been divided into two parts- Purv-Meenasha and Uttar-Meemansha. There are 20 chapters in Meemansha darshan out of which 16 chapter lies in Karm-Kand or Purv-Meemansha and 4 lies in Brahm-Kand or Uttar-Meemansha.

Purv-Meemasha (Karm-Kaand): Meemansha means investigation or interpretation of Vedic injunctions. This section has been dealt by JAIMINI. It’s not much about philosophy but details of rituals and yagnas performed to to invoke devtaas or gods.

Uttar-Meemasha (Gyaan-Kaand or Brahm-Kaand): It is also termed as Upanishads or Vedanta. It is dealt by Badraayan/ Ved-Vyaas in his Brahm-Sutra or Vedant-Sutra.

Which is the Object of Worship? ——- Upanishads.

What is worship?—————– Purv-Meemansha.

Both the Meemanshas, totaling 20 chapters form one single unitary Meemansha system. Many sages including Bodhayan and Ramanuj have declared so in no uncertain terms. 

Purvpaksha (Objection) by Advaitin

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There is no need of Karm-vichaar. ‘Atha (Then)’ represents four-fold spritual requisites.

Aspects that need to be known by Karma Mimamsa can be known by Vedanta itself. 

The cause of manifoldness is due to Avidya. Avidya covers non-dual and non-differentiated Brahman.wrong knowledge which is the root of all pain, for man, liable to birth, old age, and death, and all the numberless other evils connected with transmigratory existence–evils that spring from the view, due to beginningless Nescience (Avidya).

That which puts an end to Nescience is exclusively the knowledge of Brahman. Knowledge is the only means for liberation. (वाक्यार्थ जनित ज्ञानं).

Knowledge obtained from hearing, reasoning and meditating on texts like:

तत्वमसि : That thou art -(Sama Veda, Chandogya Upanishad – 6.8.7)

Meaning: That (Brahman) is you).

 

Since, Karma-kand is based on ‘difference’ they are redundant for Moksha-seekers.

 

Siddhant (Reply)

We admit that release consists only in the cessation of Nescience, and that this cessation results entirely from the knowledge of Brahman. Yet, the nature of this knowledge remains to be explained. Is it merely the knowledge of the sense of sentences which originates from the sentences? or is it knowledge in the form of meditation (upâsana) which has the knowledge just referred to as its antecedent?

Does Avidya get destructed and liberation occur purely by listening to this sentence or
such sentences ?

It can or may be said that the knowledge generated by listening to sentences such as
‘Tat tvam Asi’ lead the disciple to know the the nature of the Brahman leading one to
engage in the ‘Upasana’ of the Brahman?
– Mere knowledge generated by listening to sentences such as ‘Tat tvam Asi’ cannot lead
the disciple _ (further debates etc.) – Therefore ultimately one has to accept that
‘Upasana’ of the Brahma is imperative, mandatory and unavoidable if a person has to
progress in the spiritual path to attain the knowledge of the Brahman.

Mere knowledge generated by listening to sentences such as ‘Tat tvam Asi’ cannot lead
the disciple _ (further debates etc.) – Therefore ultimately one has to accept that
‘Upasana’ of the Brahma is imperative, mandatory and unavoidable if a person has to
progress in the spiritual path to attain the knowledge of the Brahman.

This UPAASANA is also called BHAKTI.

saadhana

Meditation’ means steady remembrance, i.e. a continuity of steady remembrance, uninterrupted like the flow of oil; in agreement with the scriptural passage which declares steady remembrance to be the means of release, ‘on the attainment of remembrance all the ties are loosened’ (Kh. Up. VII, 26, 2).

Steady remembrance right upto death is the means to moksha.

With this agree scriptural texts such as ‘Having known it, let him practise meditation’ (Bri. Up. IV, 4, 21); ‘He who, having searched out the Self, knows it’ (Kh. Up. VIII, 7, 1); ‘Meditate on the Self as Om’ (Mu. Up. II, 2, 6); ‘Having known that, he is freed from the jaws of death’ (Ka. Up. I, 3, 15); ‘Let a man meditate on the Self only as his world’ (Bri. Up. I, 4, 15); ‘The Self is to be seen, to be heard, to her reflected on, to be meditated on’ (Bri. Up. IV, 5, 6); ‘That we must search out, that we must try to understand’ (Kh. Up. VIII, 7, 1).

b1b2b3

 

upaasana

Vakyakaar (sage Bodhayan gave steps of Bhakti-Yoga) 

vaakyakaar

  1. Vivek: Body purification leading to mental purification. 

  2. Vimok: Struggle against (kaam, krodh, mad, moh, lobh, maatsarya)

  3. Kriya (Abhyaas): Constant rememberance of form and presence of Lord

  4. Kalyaan: truthfullness, compassion etc.

  5. Anavasaad: Despair to one’s self-created inability to attain God

  6. Anuddharsh: Freedom from elation

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Advait, Dvait and Vishishtadvait

In previous articles we talked about different philosophies (darshan) of India:

Philosophies of India

Are Vedas mutually contradictory? (Bhed Abhed and Ghatak shutis)

Now, let’s discuss various schools of Vedant-darshan and how they differ; as well how Ramanuj brought Samanvay to produce the most complete philosophy of all time.

Advait

Advait Vedant was propounded by Adi Shankaracharya and it puts emphasis on Abhed-Shruti.

Dvaita (द्वैत) = Duality,
A + Dvaita (अ + द्वैत)=Advaita = not- duality

Advait describes that there is only one reality and one truth i.e. Brahman. All else is not real, not eternal and is of transient nature (Mithya, मिथ्या). Brahman is changeless, formless, indivisible, unchanging, immutable, beyond guna-s (attributes), beyond the reach of 5 senses, mind and beyond the realms of mAyA (माया).

मनसैवानुद्रष्टव्यं, नेह नानास्ति किंचन ।
मृत्योः स मृत्युमाप्नोति य इह नानेव पश्यति ॥ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.19||

manasaivānudraṣṭavyaṃ, neha nānāsti kiṃcana |
mṛtyoḥ sa mṛtyumāpnoti ya iha nāneva paśyati || 19 ||

Meaning: There is no difference, whatsoever in It. He goes from death to death, who sees difference, as it were, in It.

ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्या जीवो ब्रहैव नापरः
brahma satyam jaganmithyA jIvo brahmaiva nAparah
Brahman (ब्रह्म, the Absolute) is alone real; this world is unreal; the Jiva or the individual soul is non-different from Brahman

  1. Brahman is attributeless i.e. bereft of any attributes. (Nirvishesh or Nirgun Brahm)
  2. Ishvar (SaguNa Brahman, सगुण ब्रह्म) is the product of maya.  Ishvara has 6 upAdhi-s (उपाधि, virtues) – overlordship, power, fame, riches, knowledge and freedom from being wanting (dispassion). UPAADHIS means limiting adjectives.
  3. The world is ‘vivart’ or apparently transformed through maya and is not real.
  4. Maya covers the real nature of Brahman (Aavaran-shakti) and make it appear as manifold (Vikshep-shakti).
  5. Jiva is all-prevading and identical with Brahman but it’s indivisualised with ‘upaadhi’ (a limiting adjunct) and reagards itself as ‘atomic’ and part of Brahman
  6. Knowledge is the only means for liberation. (वाक्यार्थ जनित ज्ञानं). Knowledge obtained from hearing, reasoning and meditating on texts likeतत्वमसि : That thou art -(Sama Veda, Chandogya Upanishad – 6.8.7)Meaning: That (Brahman) is you)
  7. Knowers of sagun Brahma goes through Brahma-loka (archiraadi maarg) from where they don’t return but attain Brahman at the end of cycle.
  8. The knowers of Nirgun Brahma attain it without having to go through the path of gods.
    1. In Advait, there are three levels of truth.  Three Levels of truths are – vyavahArika satya, prAtibhAsika satya and pAramArthika satya.
      VyavahArika Satya
      VyavahAra means day-to-day affairs. VyavahArika satya means that which is true or appears to be true in day-to-day life. In other words, it is practical reality.
      PrAtibhAsika Satya
      PrAtibhAsa means illusion or appearence. PrAtibhAsika satya is the truth which is only true in the dream state. This truth is within mind. During sleep, mind creates another world. Dream world is true for dreamer, but when one is awake, this world disappears without leaving any trace.
      PAramArthika Satya
      ParamArtha means absolute truth or highest truth. PAramArthika satya means that which remains truth in all states at all times. That which is present everywhere, without beginning or end. There is no abhAva or absence of pAramArthika satya. Hence it is called as absolute truth. Shruti says Brahman is absolute truth.
  9. In Vyavhaarik Satya; Bhed shrutis and Vedic texts describing attributes or gunas of Brahman are accepted; not in PAramArthika Satya.

E.g. Various phases of moon: Moon seems to be of different shapes each day but does it means that there are 15 different moons? At Vyavhaarika Satya level, 15 shapes of moon are there but at Parmarthik satya level, there is only one moon.

Vi chu

Meaning: As, when a jar is broken, the space enclosed by it becomes palpably the limitless space, so when the apparent limitations are destroyed, the knower of Brahman verily becomes Brahman Itself.

As milk poured into milk, oil into oil, and water into water, becomes united and
one with it, so the sage who has realised the Atman becomes one in the Atman.

Dvait

Dvait vedant was propounded by Sri Madhavacharya. Dvait Vedant is based on Bhed-shrutis.

Basic tenets of Acharya Madhwa’s teachings

shrI vyaasa thirtha has beautifully captured the essence of shrI MadhvAchArya’s philosophy in this verse
shrIman Madhva Mate harih paratarah Satyam Jagat Tattvato
bhinno jeeva ganaah, hareh anucharAh, nichochha bhavam
gatAh Muktih Naija sukhAnubhUtiramalA bhaktishcha tat
saadhanam Hi Aksyaadi tritayam pramaanam akhilam Amnaayaika
vedyo harih

  1. Vishnusarvottamativa – Supremacy of Lord Vishnu
  2. Vayujeevottamatva – Supremacy of Vayu among Jeevas
  3. The World is REAL (satya) and not illusory
  4. Panchabheda – Five fold distinction
  5. Bhakti (Devotion to God) is the sure route to God

 As per Dvait of Madhava, everything is completely different from each other. Tattvavâda follows the doctrine of pancha bheda

panch-bhed

— difference between

  1. God and the Souls,
  2. between the Souls,
  3. between God and Inert Matter,
  4. between the Souls and Inert Matter and
  5. between Inert Matter items themselves —

(Paramâtma-Jîva, Jîva-Jîva, Paramâtma and Jada, Jîva and Jada, and Jada and Jada.)

Mahâbhârata Tâtparya Nirnaya of Achârya Madhva (Chapter 1, Sarva Shâstrârtha Sangraha, shloka 71):

paJNchabhedA ime nityAH sarvavasthAsu sarvashaH | muktAnAM cha na hIyante tAratamyaM cha sarvadA ||

Gradation of aatmas, devtaas and Gradation of Aanandam

There is a gradual gradation among different souls called Taratamya. Every aatma is not eligible for mukti but only sattvika aatma or devas are. For them, Putana and Shishupal didn’t attain liberation and were sent to naraka or hell.

He divides souls into three classes. One class of souls, mukti-yogyas, qualifies for liberation, another, the nitya-samsarins, subject to eternal rebirth or eternal transmigration and a third class, tamo-yogyas, who are condemned to eternal hell (andhatamasa).[11]

Following is the hierarchy of Taratamya Devataas:

  1. Paramathma, Hari Vishnu (Sarvottama; Purusha)
  2. Rama Devi, Mahalakshmi (Avyaka Tatva; Mula prakruti)
  3. Brahma and Vayu (mahatatva)
  4. Saraswathi or Brahma Pathni and Bharathi or Vayu Pathni (Mahadavyaktha)
  5. Garuda, Shesha and Rudra (Ahankara Tatva)
  6. Krishna’s shanmahishi’s: Nila, Bhadra, Mitra Ninda, Kalandi, Lakshna, Jambavathi, tulasi
  7. Swuparni or Garuda Pathni, Varuni or Shesha Pathni and Parvathi or Rudra Pathni
  8. Indra and Kama (manaswathva)
  9. Ahamkarika Prana (Tyjasahamkara, Tvagindriya)
  10. Daksha (Panindriya), Anirudda and Kamaputra, Rathi and Kamapathni, Swayumbhuva Manu (Upastheindriya) Bruhaspathi (shabda), shachi and Indra pathni
  11. Pravahavayu (Vayutatva, Bhutavayu)
  12. Surya (Chakshurindriya), Shataroopa or Swayambhuva Manupathni, Chandra (Shotendriya) and Yama
  13. Varuna (Aaptatva, Rasanendriya)
  14. Narada
  15. Prasoothadevi, Bhrugu and Pradhnagni (Vagindriya, Tejotatva)
  16. Sapta Rishi’s, Prahlada and Vyvaswathamanu
  17. Mitra, Pravahidevi and Tara : Bruhaspathi’s wives and NiR^ti who is Rakshadinatha
  18. Vishyaksena, Ashwini Devataas (Pranenindriya), Ganapathi(Akasha Tatva) Kubera and Shata Devataas.

In the utmost sense all names point to Him. Brahman, Vishnu, Narayana etc are some of his important names.

Their philosophy of aanand-tartamya i.e. gradation of Aanandam in mukta-state doesn’t find support from Scriptures.

Vishistadvait 

Vishistadvait (विशिष्टाद्वैत)= Vishisht (Qualified)+ Advait (विशिष्ट +अद्वैत).

What’s ‘Vishist’ in Vishishtadvait?

Ans: (Guna, Vigrah, vibhuti )

vishistadvait and advaitvishishtadvaitvishisht Brahman

  1. Brahman is not attributeless but essentially personal God and possessing infinite personal attributes.
  2. ‘Mithya doctrine’ is not accepted. World is real and produced by Brahman
  3. Jiva is really atomic and produced by Brahman
  4. There is no distinction between Ishwar (sagun Brahm) and Nirgun Brahm (devoid of bad-attributes); since there is no any higher knowledge or lower knowledge of Brahman
  5. Bhakti is the chief means to liberation.
  6. The world and the aatmas are inseparable attribute of Brahman – aprithak Siddhi Visheshan
  7. The world, aatma one hand and Brahman on another hand can be integrated into Organic whole. i.e. Brahman is qualified or Vishisht by (world and jeevatmas). Thus there is only one tattva i.e. Vishisht-Brahman (Brahman qualified by chit and achit). Thus this philosophy is called Vishist-advait.

What the Advaitins say about these seemingly contradictory Vedic passages:

Only those passages that propound the identicalness of the Supreme Soul and Individual Soul are to be considered as prominent”. The reasons:

  1. The concept of Vidhi (Purovada)
  2. The concept of Anuvada
  3. Anuvada sentences having less prominence than the Purovada sentences
  4. Hence the prominence of passages that propound the identicalness of the Supreme Soul and Individual Soul

Purv Mimansha 6.5.54

Bteween two contradictory expiatory injunctions, a later one is of greater force and sublates the earlier one.

What the Dvaitins say about these seemingly contradictory Vedic passages

Only those passages that propound the distinction of the Supreme Soul and Individual Soul are to be considered as prominent”. The reasons:

  1. Even the Vedas will not say something that is totally contradictory to popular cognition.
  2. Two totally different  entities cannot become one under any circumstances
  3. Those passages that propound the non-distinction of the Supreme Soul and Individual Soul are to be considered as ‘Gauna’ – the implied meaning is to be taken into account rather than the literal meaning.
  4. Hence the prominence of passages that propound the distinction of the Supreme Soul and Individual Soul

How Sri Ramanujacharya reconciled these apparently contradictory Vedic Passages and arrived at a Universal philosophy:

  1. Ramanujacharya felt, “we should not give our own solutions to resolve these apparent differences. We should look into the Upanishads themselves and find out an authentic solution”
  2. Each and every verse of Vedas are equally sacred. No any verse is greater or lesser than another verse. There is no contradictions in Vedas.
  3. Evolving the concept of ‘Ghataka shruti’ evolved by Sri Ramanujacharya
  4. The manner in which the ‘Ghataka shruti-s’ resolve the contradictions in an amicable manner without sacrificing the authenticity or sanctity of the Upanishadic passages.

 

Satyam Gyanam Ananatam Brahm (tat.3.1)

As per Advait, Existence, knowledge and bliss itself is Brahman. Brahman is not any personal being. If knowledge and bliss is to taken as attributes than there would be lot of contradictory attributes and thus more than one Brahman.

Refutation:

One object is qualified by different attributes. Tattriya Upanishad (3.1) doesn’t define Brahman to be attribute-less. The three terms are in co-ordination and denotes three attributes of Brahman.

neelah ghatah

Nirgun Brahm meaning

यत्तदद्रेश्यमग्राह्यमगोत्रमवर्णमचक्षुःश्रोत्रं तदपाणिपादम् ।
नित्यं विभुं सर्वगतं सुसूक्ष्मं तदव्ययं यद्भूतयोनिं परिपश्यन्ति धीराः ॥ Mundak Upanishad 1.1.6

yattadadreśyamagrāhyamagotramavarṇamacakṣuḥśrotraṃ tadapāṇipādam |
nityaṃ vibhuṃ sarvagataṃ susūkṣmaṃ tadavyayaṃ yadbhūtayoniṃ paripaśyanti dhīrāḥ || 6 ||

Meaning: That which is not perceived, not grasped, without origin, colourless, without eyes or ears, or hand or feets. That which is eternal, yet of manifold expressions, all-prevading, extremly subtle and undecaying. He is the source of all creation. Wise behold everywhere.

ब्रह्मशब्देन च स्वभावतः निरस्तनिखिलदोषः अनधिकाशय असंख्येयकल्याणगुणगणः पुरुषोत्तमो अभिधीयते (श्रीभाष्य)।

First half denies all evil qualities in Brahman and in latter half ascribes to it all the auspicious qualities. It doesn’t depend upon organs for knowledge and actions. 

sagun brahmsagun brahm2

 

That Brahman is a knowing subject is known from the texts

(Chhandogya 6.3.2): seyaṃ devatemāstisro devatā anenaiva

It thought…

(Aittriya 1.1.1)

आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीत्। नान्यत् किंचन मिषत्। स ईक्षत लोकान्नु सृजा इति।।1.1.1।।

Meaning: In the beginning (all) this was verily the Atman alone. There was nothing else active. It willed, let me project the world.

(Shvetaswar 6.8).

न तस्य कार्यं करणं च विद्यते न तत्समश्चाभ्यधिकश्च दृश्यते।
परास्य शक्तिर्विविधैव श्रूयते स्वाभाविकी ज्ञानबलक्रिया च।।

Meaning: His high power is revealed as manifold, forming his essential nature which is knowledge, strength and action.

tattriya Upanishad 2.9 

यतो वाचो निवर्तन्ते। अप्राप्य मनसा सह। आनन्दं ब्रह्मणो विद्वान्। न बिभेति कुतश्चनेति

Meaning: “One who knows the bliss of the Brahman, from which all mind and speech turns away without reaching it”

In Bhagwat Gita, 7.6-7; 9.4-5; 10.3; 10.42; 15.17-18

In Vishnu Puran: 1.2.10-14; 1.12.53; 6.5.82-87; 6.7.69-71

Means of salvation:

upaasana stepsupaasana steps2upaasana

This kind of constant remembrance is called Bhakti i.e. devout worship.

स्नेहपूर्वं अवधारयेत भक्ति

Loving meditation or Remembrace of the object meditated upon like a continuous stream of oil, tipping into a container.dhyan.JPG

Aatma is both Knowledge personified as well as Knower

aatman is knowledge itself by nature called DHARMI GYAAN. Aatman possess knowledge as well which helps it to understand the surrounding and realize it’s essential nature i.e. Knowledge (Gyanam). The attributive knowldge is called DHARM GYAAN.

dharmbhut gyaanam.JPG

References:

  1. Ramanuj.org Sribhasyam class and ppt
  2. Sribhasya translation by Swami Vireswaranand

Is Vedas mutually contradictory?

Bhed Abhed and Ghatak shrutis:

For the sake of study, Vedas are divided into two parts- Purva-bhaag and Uttar bhag. “Purva-bhaag” deals about karma-kand, Upaasana and rituals while “Uttar-bhaag” also called “Vedant” deals about Knowledge of Brahman. Rituals performed with knowledge leads to Sriman Narayana. So, both parts are equally important.

It’s said that, “विद्वान विपश्यते दोषज्ञः”| (Two vidwans would never agree to each other.)

Also, “शास्त्र ज्ञानं बहु क्लेशं”| Study of Shastras is extremely painful since they seems to contradict each other. So, Mundaka Upanishad(1.2.12-13) says-“  “’ One should a approach a guru witch tranquil mind and restrained senses”. The guru should be

  1. Shrotiyam: learned in Vedas from up to the end.
  2. Brahmnishtham: who have apprehended the true nature of Brahman.

There are mainly three schools of Vedantic studies- Advait, Dvait and Vishishtadvait. While Advait talks about complete ‘oneness’; Dvait talks about complete ‘difference’.

Adhikaari-Bheda

There is no room for contradiction in Vedas. Each and every shloka of Vedas are sacred and equally important. Not any one part of Vedas can be taken and said to be superior to other.

Adhikaari-bheda means differences arising from the levels of interpretations by the readers. While Vedas seems to be mutually contradicting, they give non-contradictory message actually. Abhed shruti talks about one-ness of Jeevatma and Parmatma while Bhed Shruti talks about difference between Jeevatma and Parmatma.  Are Vedas mutually contradicting? No, Vedas themselves provides the solution in form of Ghatak-Shruti which combines both Abhed-Shruti and Bhed-Shruti. That’s the contribution of Sri Ramanuja to Vedant philosophy. When Ramanuj arrived in the scene, there was utter darkness all around. He appeared like a becon-light in the dark-phase.

How can so many interpretations of Vedas be possible? Vedas too seems to advocate different things at different places. Ramanuja at the end of his magnum opus ‘Sri Bhasyam’ says – “iti sarvam samanjasam” which means “now everything is reconciled.” No any other commentators have dared to write so. How did he reconciled the differences? Let’s have a look.

Vedas comprises of 3 different types of texts.

  1. Bhed shruti: Which talks about difference between Jeevatma and Parmatma.
  2. Abhed Shruti: Which talks about oneness of Jeevatma and Parmatma.
  3. Ghatak Shrutis: One may think that Vedas have enough confused the people. Vedas themselves provides the solution. Ghatak shrutis connects both the abhed and bhed shrutis so that no contradiction remains.

 

Article in Hindi: शरीर-आत्मा भाव, घटक श्रुति

  1. Abhed shruti:

Abheda Shruthis states that the universe (all chit and achit entities) and the Brahman are one and the same. They seem to convey the identity of the universe, jeevatma and the Brahman (Parmatma).

 

  1. sarvam Khalvam idam Brahm. (All this is Brahman.) Chandogya Upanishad (III.14.1.)
  2. tat tvam asi. (You are that (Brahman)). Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.7.)
  3. Ayam Atma Brahma (This Atman is Brahman): Mandukya Upanishad (1.2) of the Atharva Veda.
  4. Aham brahmasmi (I am Brahman) (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad I.iv.10)

2. Bhed Shruti:

 

The Bheda Sruthis seems to categorically declare the difference between the Brahman and the universe.

When the Vedas make statements like, “A is the creator of B,” “A is the supporter of B,” “A is that into which B is absorbed at the end of its life,” “A pervades B,” “A is the indweller of B,” etc, then it logically follows that A and B are two different entities. Related, certainly. Inseparable, certainly. But still distinct.

e.g.,

  1. bhokta bhogyam preritaram cha matwa sarvam proktam trividham brahmametat ‘ (Shvetaashwara Upanishad -1/12)

// भोक्ता भोग्यं प्रेरितारं च मत्वासर्वं प्रोक्तं त्रिविधं ब्रह्ममेतत् ॥//

(bhokta (enjoyer) is Jeevatma, bhogyam (enjoyed) is Prakriti and Prerita (controller) is Brahman. All three are the forms of Brahman. [translated by  Harikrishnadas Goenka]

  1. पृथगात्मानं प्रेरितारं च मत्वा जुष्टस्ततस्तेनामृतत्वमेति ॥” (Shvetaashwara Upanishad -1/6)

Meaning: (By knowing the individual self and the impeller to be different, he, being blessed by him, attains immortality.) [translated by M. B. Narsimha Ayyangar)

  1. नित्योऽनित्यानां चेतनश्चेतनानाम् एको बहूनां यो विदधाति कामान् ।

तमात्मस्थं येऽनुपश्यन्ति धीराः तेषां शान्तिः शाश्वती नेतरेषाम् ॥ Kathopanishad. 5.13

Meaning: “Who so among the intelligent realize the Self in the (inner space of the) heart as the eternal among the ephemeral, the consciousness among the conscious, who, though one, dispenses the desired objects to many, to them belongs eternal peace, not to others.” (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 5.13) [translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli]

 

  1. नित्यो नित्यानां चेतनश्चेतनानामेको बहूनां यो विदधाति कामान् ।

तत्कारणं सांख्ययोगाधिगम्यं ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपाशैः ॥Shvetaswar Upanishad. 6.13

Meaning: “He is the eternal among the eternal and the intelligent among all that are intelligent. Though one, He grants the desires of the many. One is released from all fetters on realizing Him, the cause of all, who is comprehensible through philosophy and religious discipline.” (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.13) [translated by Swami Tyagisananda]

 

  1. क्षरं प्रधानममृताक्षरम हरः क्षरत्मानाविशते देव एकः।। (Shvetaswar Upanishad 1.80)

Meaning: The perishable is Prakrti; the immortal and imperishable is Hara (the individual self); and the Lord alone rules over both the perishable Prakrti and the imperishable individual self’ [ Translated by By Swami Adidevananda]

  1. क्षरं त्वविद्या ह्यमृतं तु विद्या विद्याविद्ये ईशते यस्तु सोऽन्यः।।5.1.1।।(Shvetaswar Upanishad 5.1)

Meaning: The indestructible is the Avidya (Karma) and the immortal is the Vidya (Knowledge) and He who commands them is distinct. [translated by M. B. Narsimha Ayyangar)

  1. द्वा सुपर्णा सयुजा सखाया समानं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते।

तयोरन्यः पिप्पलं स्वाद्वत्त्यनश्नन्नन्यो अभिचाकशीति।। (Atharv-ved kand 9.14.20; Rig-Ved Mandal 1.164.20; Kathopanishad 1.3.1; Mundak Upanishad 3.1.1; Shvetaswar upanishad 4.1.6)

Meaning: The body is like Pippala plant, aatman and Parmatman is like two friend birds sitting on the tree. One of them eats the sweet pippala fruit and other shines in splendor without eating them at all. The fruits are like ‘karmaas’ which a jeevatma experiences while Patmatma just witness it, without being affected by Karma.

 

  1. यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः। अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमःGita 15. 18।।

Meaning: Inasmuch as I transcend the perishable (i.e., bound) Person of the aforesaid nature, and I am higher, for reasons stated earlier, than the imperishable Person or liberated self, therefore I am styled the Supreme Person in the Smrti and Srutis.

[ Translated by By Swami Adidevananda]

https://www.gitasupersite.iitk.ac.in/srimad?scram=1&setgb=1&etradi=1&&language=dv&field_chapter_value=15&field_nsutra_value=18

10. क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत। क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम।।Gita 13.3।।

Meanings: Know as Myself the Field-knower also who is the only form of the Knower in all the bodies like divinities, men etc., i.e., know them as ensouled by Me.

3. Ghatak Shruti:

Ghatak shruti joins Bhed and Abhed shrutis.

The Ghataka Sruthi declares that the Brahman is the inner controler (Antaryaamin – Aatma) present inside everyone. All chit and Achit entities are the body (Sareeram) of Brahman. This Sareera-atma Bhaavam (body-soul) relationship between the universe and the Brahman is conveyed by the “Ghataka Sruthi.”

Parashar Maharshi explains the ghatak shruti in Vishnu-Puran:

  1. VP 1.22.20: All these are produced from portion of Vishnu who appears as all beings.1.22.20
  2. VP 1.22.38: Whoever is created for its generation by an agent, it forms body of Hari.1.22.38.JPG
  3. VP 1.22.56: The fire remains in one place; but its light spreads all around. In this way, all the worlds are manifestations of the power of the Brahman.

1.22.56

Veda’s authority: (translations by Swami Gambhiranand and Swami Adidevanand)

  1. यः पृथिव्यां तिष्ठन्। पृथिव्या अन्तरो यं पृथिवी न वेद यस्य पृथिवी शरीरं यः पृथिवीमन्तरो यमयति स त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः{Satpatha Brahman 14.6.7.[7]}
  2. य आत्मनि तिष्ठन् आत्मनोऽन्तरो यमात्मा न वेद यस्यात्मा शरीरं य आत्मानमन्तरो यमयति स त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः – {Satpath Brahman 14.6.7.[30]}

Meaning: He who, dwelling in the self is within the self, whom the self does not know, whose body the self is, and who controls the self from within, He is your Inner Controller and Immortal Self’

  1. यः सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्सर्वेभ्यो भूतेभ्योऽन्तरो यं सर्वाणि भूतानि न विदुः। यस्य सर्वाणि भूतानि शरीरं यः सर्वाणि भूतायन्तरो यमयति। एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः (BrihadaAranyak Upanishad 3।7।15)

Meaning: He who, dwelling in all beings, is within all beings, whom all beings do not know, whose body all beings are, who controls all beings from within, is your Inner Controller, immortal Self.

  1. एको वशी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा एकं रूपं बहुधा यः करोति ।

         तमात्मस्थं येऽनुपश्यन्ति धीरास्तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् ।।  Kathopanishad 2.2.12 ।।

Meaning: Eternal peace is for those – and not for others – who are discriminating and who realize in their hearts Him who – being one, the controller, and the inner Self of all – makes a single form multifarious.

 

  1. jagat Sarvam Sariram te (Ramayan. Yuddhakanda, 120:26)

Meaning: Whole Universe is your body.

 

  1. सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्टो मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनं च (Gita:15।15)
  2. ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशोऽर्जुन तिष्ठति। भ्रामयन् सर्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया।। (Gita:18।61)
  3. न तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम्। (Gita: 10।39)

Meaning: Of all beings, in whatever condition they may exist, whether manifest or not, I alone am that state. Whatever host of beings are said to exist, they do not exist without Me as their Self. In the statement, ‘Nothing that moves or does not move exists without Me’, it is taught that the Lord exists as the Self, as said in the beginning: ‘I am the Self, seated in the hearts of all beings’ (10.20). The purport is that the entire host of beings in every state, is united with Me, their Self. By this He makes it clear that He, being the Self of all things, is the ground for His being denoted by everything in co-ordinate predication.

Other authorities are:

Chhandogya. (4.2.2-3);   Brihadaranyak (5.7.3); Mundak (3.1.1); Taittriya (11.6); Shwetaswar(1.12, 1.17, 1.25, 6.33); Aitriya Upanishad

 

The Pradhaana Prathitantram of Visistaadvaita

Sareera-Aatma Bhaava” otherwise called as “Sareera-Sareere Bhava” which is the “Body-Soul” relationship between the universe (all sentient (Chit/Jeeva) and insentient (Achit/non-living matter)) and the Brahman who is Lord Shreeman Naaraayana Paramaataman.

Ramanuja defines what ‘body’ means in his comment on Brahma-Sutras
2.1.9:

Any substance which a conscious soul is capable of completely controlling and upporting for its own purposes, and which stands to the soul in an entirely subordinate relation, is the body of that soul. Our body is completely under our control and we shape it and use it for our purposes. When the soul departs from a body, what remains is lifeless and soon starts to decay, and shortly thereafter it is clear it is not a body at all.

When we see a soul united to a body, we conventionally do not distinguish the two, and treat the two as indivisible parts.

In the same way, everything that exists is completely supported and controlled by the true Self, God. In this way, everything is said to be God’s body; without God nothing could conceivably exist. The other side of this coin is that if anything is to exist, God is inseparably associated with it as its Self, supporter, and controller.

Take an example:

When I say Hari, listen to me. whom am I calling?  body or aatman?

Ans: Body

Q: but body can’t respond

Ans: Aatma

Q: But, aatma don’t have name. Hari, this name doesn’t belong to Aatma.

Solution:

By calling bodily attributes like- O black haired girl, I am calling calling aatman who possess body. aatman and body are intimately attached. we call body but that is meant for aatman.
similarly, brahman is our aatman..residing inside the aatman. So, we becomes his body.
aatman and prakriti are inseparable from Brahman in Sharir-aatma bhaav.
when I say – You are brahman.
I am actualling adressing Brahman inside you i.e. aatman not you
aham brahmasmi–means I am body of Brahman. But, since I have him as my aatma, I am called Brahman. Bodily features are used to call Brahman.
similarly, when I say everything is Brahman it means Brahman is inside everyone
so, they are Brahman…since they are body of Brahman.
Is feathers of peacock different from peacock? Is it same as peacock?
when peacock closes it’s feathers, it’s like dissolution
and when she dances, it’s creation. 
Alvaar says that cloud is mahalkshmi and peacock is Narayan.
We are feathers. we expands i.e. gets body contracts after pralay and reamains in sukhsm form
We would come with a detailed article on Shareer-Aatma bhaav.

When the Gataka Sruthi is used to synchronize, the Abheda sruthi verses mean to tell that nothing other than the Brahman qualified by the universe as his body exists. In the same way when the Gataka sruthi verses are used to synchronize, the bheda sruthi verses mean to tell that the Brahman, who is the soul of the universe, is different from the universe, which is his body. Body and soul are different entities but they are inseparably related. The body is therefore called “Aprutak Sidha Visheshanam” meaning the body becomes the inseparable attribute of the soul. The term “Aprutak Sidha” rules out independent existence of the body. Without the soul, the body cannot have swaroopam. stiti and pravruiti. Also, the soul has not mode without the body and therefore the body called the mode (Prakaram) of the soul.

This relation is to be eternally and inseparably present between the soul and the body otherwise the concept itself is ruled out. For example, assume that a man is supporting an object say “pot”. Though he is the supporter and the pot is supported, the man cannot be the soul of the pot and the pot cannot be called as his body. This is because it is possible that the same pot can be supported by someone else (if he gives it to another person) or by something else say ground (if he keeps it on the ground). The inseparable eternal relation is not present here in this example.

Similarly in an example, a man controls his servant by his order. Though the man is the controller and his servant is controlled, the man cannot be called as the soul of the servant and the servant cannot be called as his body. This is because it is possible that someone else can control the same servant. The inseparable eternal relation is not present in this example also.

Follow another example where a man owns a land and gets benefits from it. Though the man is the owner of the land, enjoys the benefits from his land, and the land is owned and exists for the purpose of the man, the man cannot be called as the soul of the land and the land cannot be called as the body of the man. The inseparable eternal relation is not present in this example also, as another person can own the land if it is sold or seized.

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